ABAPDOCU: online ABAP documentation

All ABAP documentation is online available in your ABAP system. Start transaction ABAPDOCU:

The most used function is the traditional ABAP keyword documentation.

But the ABAPDOCU is constantly updated and also contains great background information on:

  • CDS views
  • Restful Application Programming model (RAP)
  • Security in ABAP
  • Cloud rules for ABAP
  • Release notes for ABAP releases
  • ABAP examples
  • Tools for ABAP programming

OSS notes

Set up AIF interface error handling

SAP has a nice framework to handle interface errors: AIF (application integration framework).

The framework is quite old already but was not very popular. Not to the fact that it is not good (it is in fact quite good), but it is because it is a licensed product and too expensive for the value it brings.

The framework is now split into 2 parts:

  • Use in combination with standard SAP scenarios (in this case the use of AIF is free)
  • Use in combination with your own custom flows (in this case you need to pay for the AIF license)

Activating AIF error handling content

For reference you can read the formal help file from SAP on activating AIF content.

Extract the content using SE38 report /AIF/CONTENT_EXTRACT.

Then start transaction /AIF/CUST to maintain the customizing for errors. The input is given on this SAP help page.


And define the error handling levels:

Use of AIF

Transaction /AIF/ERR can be used for the error handling monitoring:

ABAP debugger stop at modification

As ABAP developer you can be asked to help out with issues in standard SAP to help debug the issue.

First of all, you normally use the ANST tool to check if there are any standard SAP notes available.

The second step is to search for user-exits and BADI’s for a transaction.

The third step you can do is use the new ABAP debugger script to search for customer enhancements during debugging. To do this, load the new script by applying OSS note 3415810 – New ABAP Debugger Script RSTPDA_SCRIPT_MODIFICATION.

Now start debugging like usual and go to the Script tab:

Then load the script RSTPDA_SCRIPT_MODIFICATION:

Then start the script and choose your break-point stop conditions:

Now you can check if there is any modification or custom coding interfering with standard SAP.

When no custom coding involved and issues is still persisting, you can debug, but will still be forced to file a case at me.sap.com for an SAP solution.

SAP Focused Run monitoring applications

This blog will explain specific items to keep in mind when monitoring certain applications.

Applications discussed and explained:

  • Adobe document servers (ADS)
  • BW systems
  • Cloud connectors
  • Content servers
  • ECC and S4HANA servers
  • EWM (enterprise warehouse management) servers
  • GTS (global trade system) servers
  • Netweaver gateway FIORI hub systems
  • SCM (supply chain management) servers
  • SLT servers
  • Web dispatchers

For each system we explain the monitoring of productive and non-productive system.

Adobe document server (ADS) application monitoring

Adobe Document Server (ADS) is used to generate PDF’s for output and/or interactive PDF forms.

Monitoring productive ADS systems

When monitoring a productive system, you will need to finetune the monitoring templates for:

  • SAP J2EE 7.20 – 7.50 Application template, for the JAVA application
  • SAP J2EE 7.20 – 7.50 Technical instance template, for the JAVA application servers
  • System host template
  • Database template

JAVA APPLICATION TEMPLATE for adobe document server monitoring

Make sure you cover in the JAVA application template the following items:

Availability:

  • JAVA HTTP availability
  • Expiring certificates
  • JAVA license expiry

From the JAVA instance template make sure to cover the following items:

  • J2EE application status
  • Instance HTTP availability and logon
  • JAVA server node status
  • GC (Garbage collection)

Fine tune the metrics so you are alerted on situation where the system is having issues.

ADobe document server template for monitoring

ADS has a specific Technical instance template.

Make sure you activate it:

Most important here is the first one: ADS availability. Please make sure you are alerted when this one is not available.

BW application monitoring

BW systems are at the often used as reporting systems within an SAP landscape.

The basic monitoring of a BW system is the same as for any ABAP based system.

For a BW system some numbers are typically higher than on an ECC or S4HANA system. Response times of 1.5 seconds would indicate horrible performance on ECC, but are normal on a BW system.

Process chain monitoring

BW uses process chains. To monitor process chains, read this dedicated blog.

Cloud connector application monitoring

The Cloud connector is used between on premise systems and Cloud solutions provided by SAP.

Monitoring of cloud connector focuses on availability and connectivity.

Monitoring productive cloud connector systems

The cloud connector template contains all the needed elements out of the box:

If your landscape has only one cloud connector that is also used for non-productive systems, you might find a lot of issues in the non-productive system. Like expired certificates, channels not working, many logfile entries. If the cloud connector is very important for your business, it is best to split off the productive cloud connector from the non-productive usage. This way you can apply sharp rule settings for production: even single issue will lead to alert. While on non-production the developers will be making a lot of issues as part of their developer process.

Monitoring non-productive cloud connector systems

In your landscape you might have a non-productive cloud connector that is used for testing purposes. In the non-productive cloud connectors you might apply a different template with less sensitive settings on certificates, logfiles and amount of tunnels that are failing.

Relevant OSS notes for cloud connector monitoring

3391143 – Cloud Connector system is not coming into SAP Focus Run LMDB

Content server application monitoring

Content servers are often used to store attachment and data archiving files. They are technical systems with usually no direct access for end user. End users normally fetch and store data form content server via an ABAP or JAVA application.

Technical setup for content server monitoring

The technical setup for monitoring content server in SAP Focused Run is described in detail in a PDF attached to OSS note 3151832 – SAP Content Server 6.40/6.50/7.53 Monitoring with SAP Focus Run. There is no need to repeat here.

The main part of content server monitoring is availability.

ABAP connection to content server monitoring

In some cases both your ABAP stack and content server are up and running, but communication between them is failing on application level. This leads to not working system for end users. Root causes can be firewall issues, certificate issues, or somebody altered settings.

To test the ABAP system connection to content server a custom ABAP program is needed. See this blog. You can schedule the program in batch and set up a new custom metric to capture the system log entry written by the program.

System host template for content server monitoring

For system host the regular CPU, memory, disc template is sufficient. Finetune the thresholds to your comfort level.

Database template for content server monitoring

Important items of the database template:

  • Database availability
  • Database health checks
  • Backup

In most installations it is chosen to install Content Server with the SAP MaxDB database (similar to LiveCache).

Relevant OSS notes for content server monitoring

ECC and S4HANA application monitoring

ECC and S4HANA systems are at the core of each SAP landscape, and most vital to the business.

When monitoring a productive system, you will need to finetune the monitoring templates for:

  • ABAP 7.10 and higher Application template, for the ABAP application
  • ABAP 7.10 and higher Technical instance template, for the ABAP application servers
  • System host template
  • Database template

ABAP application template

Make sure you cover in the ABAP application template the following items:

Availability:

  • Message server HTTP logon
  • System logon check
  • RFC logon check
  • License status
  • Certificates expiry
  • Update status

Performance and system health:

  • Critical number ranges
  • Enqueue lock % filled
  • SICK detection
  • Dumps last hour
  • Update errors last hour
  • Cancelled jobs last hour
  • Long running work processes and jobs (see blog)

Security:

  • Global changeability should be that the system is closed
  • Locking of critical users like SAP* and DDIC (see blog)

Fine tune the metrics so you are alerted on situation where the system is having issues.

ABAP application server template

Make sure you cover in the ABAP application server template the following items:

Availability:

  • Local RFC logon test
  • Local HTTP logon test
  • Local Logon test
  • Message server disconnects (see blog)

Application server performance and health:

  • Amount of critical SM21 messages
  • No more free work processes (see blog)
  • Update response times

You can consider to setup extra custom metrics for the application servers:

System host template

For system host the regular CPU, memory, disc template is sufficient. Finetune the thresholds to your comfort level.

Database template

Important items of the database template:

  • Database availability
  • Database health checks
  • Backup

Functions monitoring

Next to the availability and performance mentioned above, check also for monitoring certain functions:

EWM (enterprise warehouse management) application monitoring

EWM systems are at the often used as stand alone systems that make sure logistics and warehousing can keep running at high availability. If the connected ECC or S4HANA system is down, EWM can continue to support logistics operations.

EWM can be older version based on SCM/BI system core. Newer EWM systems are using S4HANA with EWM activated as standalone.

Extra in an EWM system are the use of qRFC and the CIF (Core interface). And many EWM systems have users that interact with the system via ITS GUI based handheld scanners.

EWM systems are at the often used as stand alone systems that make sure logistics and warehousing can keep running at high availability. If the connected ECC or S4HANA system is down, EWM can continue to support logistics operations.

EWM can be older version based on SCM/BI system core. Newer EWM systems are using S4HANA with EWM activated as standalone.

Extra in an EWM system are the use of qRFC and the CIF (Core interface). And many EWM systems have users that interact with the system via ITS GUI based handheld scanners.

CIF monitoring

The CIF is the core interface between SCM and ECC system. The interface typically uses RFC and qRFC. And it is working both ways.

Setup for the CIF specific RFC’s and qRFC’s the monitoring:

Handheld scanners

Many EWM systems are having interaction with scanners via the ITS server. Basically this is a small web page on a scanning device.

Make sure you monitor the availability of the URL’s that the scanners are using. More on URL monitoring can be found in this blog.

GTS (global trade system) application monitoring

GTS systems are at the not frequent in use. When in use they do play a vital role in import and export business scenario’s when good are crossing borders.

Since a GTS system is normally installed, and often no to little maintenance and software changes are performed on the system. Also basis teams tend not to look at it too often, since it normally runs stable.

In case of non-availability of GTS, ECC scenario’s linked to GTS might fail and can causes severe business disruptions.

For this reason it is important to set up monitoring in FRUN for your GTS system and also configure mail alerts in case of issues. They will not happen too often, but when they happen you can act fast. This will also save the basis team spending a lot of time on checking GTS system for log (most cases, the checks are good).

When monitoring a productive system, you will need to finetune the monitoring templates for:

  • ABAP 7.10 and higher Application template, for the ABAP application
  • ABAP 7.10 and higher Technical instance template, for the ABAP application servers
  • System host template
  • Database template

The next step is to set up interface monitoring for RFC from the ECC system towards the GTS system.

Netweaver Gateway Fiori hub system application monitoring

Netweaver Gateway systems are used to host Fiori applications.

Netweaver gateway template

For Netweaver gateway, also assign and fine tune the Gateway template:

The important custom check on URL availability is best to setup as well: read this blog for instructions.

Consider to setup interface monitoring for RFC‘s from End User to Gateway and Gateway to ECC backends.

SCM (supply chain management) application monitoring

SCM systems are at the often used logistics optimization systems. They are mainly used in combination with traditional ECC systems. They are less needed in combination with S4HANA systems (or you can use the embedded SCM of HANA).

The core of an SCM system is a BI system. Many data is using similar extractors and process chains as a BI system. Hence follow the tuning needed for a BI system.

Extra in an SCM system are the LiveCache and the CIF (Core interface).

The basic monitoring of an SCM system is the same as for any ABAP based system.

For an SCM system some numbers are typically higher than on an ECC or S4HANA system. Response times of 1.5 seconds would indicate horrible performance on ECC, but are normal on an SCM system.

LiveCache monitoring

LiveCache is normally running on a MaxDB database.

So it is important to activate, assign and finetune the metrics for the MaxDB database:

Focus on:

  • Availability
  • Backup
  • Performance

Next to the database, you also need to activate, assign and finetune the LiveCache specific application template:

This template contains the primary elements to monitor for the LiveCache functions like:

  • Availability of LiveCache as a function
  • Structure check for LiveCache
  • Memory issues for LiveCache specifically

Fine tune the metrics so you are alerted on situation where the system is having issues.

CIF monitoring

The CIF is the core interface between SCM and ECC system. The interface typically uses RFC and qRFC. And it is working both ways.

Setup for the CIF specific RFC’s and qRFC’s the monitoring:

Process chain monitoring

SCM uses process chains. To monitor process chains, read this dedicated blog.

SLT system application monitoring

SLT systems are mainly used to replicate data from source systems like ECC and S4HANA towards target systems like Enterprise HANA, HANA cloud and other data pool systems.

SLT DMIS template for SLT system

For SLT systems, apply the SLT DMIS template:

In the SLT system itself, make sure job /1LT/IUC_HEALTH_C with program R_DMC_HC_RUN_CHECKS runs. This will collect data that is needed for SLT itself, but which is also re-used by SAP Focused Run.

OSS notes to apply and check:

Anyhow you should make sure to regularly apply the notes for the DMIS component. See this blog.

SLT DMIS dummy template backend system

For SLT to work, the DMIS component is installed in both the SLT system and the backend system. For the backend system SLT component, Focused Run will pick up the template as well. But this will not make any sense in monitoring, since it is the source system and not the SLT system.

For this reason, set up a dummy empty template with every monitoring item disabled:

Assign this dummy template to your backend system.

SLT integration monitoring

Set up the SLT integration monitoring to monitoring communication.

Web dispatcher application monitoring

Standalone web dispatchers are used to load balance web traffic towards ABAP and/or JAVA systems. Common use case is to have web dispatcher for a large Netweaver Gateway FIORI installation.

Monitoring productive cloud web dispatchers

Monitoring of web dispatchers focuses on availability, connectivity and performance.

The web dispatcher template contains most needed elements out of the box:

Issues with performance are often caused by limitations set in the web dispatcher configuration. Keep these settings active.

You might want to add specific custom metric to monitor the most important URL for your web dispatcher. Read more in this specific blog.

Next to this setup the normal host monitoring to make sure the file system and CPU of the web dispatcher are not filling up and causing availability issues for the web dispatcher function.

Monitoring non-productive web dispatcher systems

For monitoring non-productive web dispatcher systems, it is normally sufficient to restrict to host and availability monitoring.

Relevant OSS notes for web dispatcher monitoring

3373764 – Issue with Content Server on Web dispatcher templates

LMDB OSS notes

3104059 – Troubleshooting ABAP Data supplier populating LMDB

<< This blog was originally posted on SAP Focused Run Guru by Frank Umans. Repost done with permission. >>

ABAP performance examples

The ABAP workbench has a set of examples to show you how to make the best coding with regards to performance.

You can reach the examples in SE38 transaction by selecting menu Environment, Examples, Performance Examples. You then reach the performance examples demos screen.

On the left hand side you can choose a topic and double click on it. You then see 2 examples of implementation. By clicking on the Measure Runtime button:

Now the two examples are evaluated at runtime. At the bottom you can see the documentation and explanation on what is best to use.

ABAP cleaner Eclipse plugin

The ABAP cleaner Eclipse plugin is a great tool to clean up your ABAP code according to the ABAP clean code principles.

Questions that will be answered in this blog are:

  • How to install the ABAP cleaner Eclipse plugin?
  • How to run the ABAP cleaner?
  • How to configure the ABAP cleaner?

Installation of the ABAP cleaner Eclipse plugin

Follow the instructions on the ABAP cleaner site for installation. In short, just like you install the ADT tools, now put in the site “https://sap.github.io/abap-cleaner/updatesite“. Download the software and ignore the certificate warnings. Eclipse restart is required.

Running ABAP cleaner

Basic use instructions can be found on the ABAP cleaner site. We will use this example code:

REPORT zcleanerdemo.

* ABAP clean code demo
Data: abap_true type boolean.
data: do_not_do_anything type boolean.

write:/ 'Hello world'.

if abap_true <> 'X'.
write: 'ok'.
else.
write: 'not ok'.

endif.

Yes, this code is ugly.

In Eclipse right click on the code and select the option Source Code and then the option Clean up with Interactive ABAP cleaner…

It is best to start always with the interactive cleaner so you have insights and control on the changes done to your source code.

On the left hand side you see your old code. On the middle the code changes proposed. On the right hand side you see the clean up settings.

The profile is determining the rules used. Out of the box you get the default and essential profile. It is advised to play around and build your own set using the Configure button (see next chapter in this blog).

You can set the clean up range: from current statement, current method, current class to whatever code you opened in Eclipse (multiple windows). You might wonder, why only current statement or method? Remember one of the clean code principles is the boy scout rule; leave the code better than how you found it. So no need to refactor old stuff completely, do it chunk by chunk every time.

The restrict rules of syntax can be set to the latest ABAP release or to a specific release.

If you click on a rule, you can see the rules applied in bottom right part of the screen:

If you are happy with the changes press the Apply and close button.

ABAP cleaner configuration

On the screen above when you hit the Configure button you reach the configuration screen:

This screen is overwhelming when you start. Top right you can manage your profiles. Create new ones or copy from templates. Bottom right you can switch on and off which detailed rule is part of the profile. On the top right you can fine tune the exact details of each rule according to your needs and preferences.

The changes you make will be made instantly available on the example, so you can immediately assess the impact of your fine tuning.

Word of care: take care that ABAP cleaner and Pretty printer are not constantly juggling your code around.

ABAP2XLS framework

The ABAP2XLS framework is a nice framework to speed up the development time and options to work with XLS from ABAP.

Installation

Follow the instructions on the ABAP2XLS github site to download and install. Also install the demo programs.

Demo programs

Run program ZABAP2XLSX_DEMO_SHOW to see the demo programs:

Double clicking on a program will show the coding on the right hand side and also start the demo program. In this case generating xls with multiple tabs with just a few lines of coding.

There are many options possible. Just look at the demo programs and re-use the coding.

FOR ALL ENTRIES statement tuning on Oracle database

In very weird cases you get performance issues on one system and not on the other. This can happen when running Oracle and using the FOR ALL ENTRIES statement for very large data sets, while it is fine on smaller sets.

The background is Oracle blocking factors. The full background can be read in these 2 SAP notes:

The solution is to give an Oracle hint (see note 129385 – Database hints in Open SQL) with a lower number of blocking factors.

%_HINTS ORACLE '&prefer_in_itab_opt 1&&max_in_blocking_factor 100&'

Performance issue solved…

If you migrate to HANA or different database, you need to remove or redo the hint again.

Using type-ahead and fuzzy search in F4 help

You can use type-ahead and fuzzy search in F4 help in custom ABAP code. Type-ahead will work with any database. Fuzzy search only with a HANA database.

Test table

First we create a simple test table and fill it with some dummy entries:

Set up Search Help

In SE11 now create elementary search help:

Fill the search help reference to the table and mark the Autosuggest (type-ahead) and mark the full text search:

The fuzzy value of 0,8 allows a similar keyword with a typo to popup. 0,9 be more strict, 0,7 will be less strict. You have to play around. 0,8 is a decent value.

Test program

Now you can test with this test program:

REPORT ZTEST_FUZZY.

PARAMETERS P_TEST type ZTEST-TEXT MATCHCODE OBJECT Z_TEST_FUZZY.

The parameter defined is referring to the search help (matchcode is the old term) we just defined.

Result: if the user starts to key, it will already suggest values:

System wide setup

If it is not working, check with transaction SDSH_CONFIG if the system wide setup is activated or not:

See OSS note 1971775 – Functional or Performance Issues Related to the Type-Ahead Search Functionality.

Call transaction security

An ABAP developer can call a different transaction from a custom build program or transaction. This can be very helpful for certain user requirements and can save an end user time when the system is helping him with jumping from one transaction to the next logical transaction.

Example

For authorization this can be a bit messy.
What for example will happen with this coding:

CALL TRANSACTION 'SU01'.

Will the SU01 transaction now be called successfully or not?

SE97 TCDCOUPLES

Suppose the user does not have rights to call SU01. The coding is still trying to go to this transaction.

Depending on the value of system parameter auth/check/calltransaction a couple of things can happen:

  • No check
  • Always check
  • Lookup if check is needed in table TCDCOUPLES

Table TCDCOUPLES links the calling transaction to the jumped to transaction and determines if the transaction authorization for the new transaction is required or not.

But what in case there is no entry or the entry in TCDCOUPLES is vague? Then it again determines on the value of parameter auth/check/calltransaction to be strict or not strict.

Entries in table TCDCOUPLES are maintained via transaction SE97:

Standard SAP example output:

Formal OSS note of SE97: 358122 – Description of functions of transaction SE97.

Updating TCDCOUPLES is a lot of work and no longer SAP best practice. See this SAP blog.

Correct way of coding

The correct way of coding is more simple: always indicate that the authority check is mandatory:

CALL TRANSACTION 'SU01' WITH AUTHORITY-CHECK.

In this way the coding forces the check independent of the system parameter and entries in TCDCOUPLES.

Finding incorrectly coded CALL TRANSACTIONS

The fastest way of finding incorrectly coded call transactions is by running the SAP CVA (code vulnerability analysis) tool. This tool scans for CALL TRANSACTIONS with missing authority checks. It also scans for other variations like dynamic use of CALL TRANSCATION.

Alternatively you can use CODE_SCANNER (see blog on usage) with this special input:

Basically you tell the program to look for any program with CALL TRANSACTION and not having WITH AUTHORITY-CHECK in it. Do realize it can potentially miss programs in case there are 2 calls (1 correct and 1 incorrect). The CVA tool will not miss this case.

LEAVE TO TRANSACTION

You might wonder: what is the situation for the LEAVE TO TRANSACTION statement? That is more simple. LEAVE TO TRANSACTION will always check the user rights for object S_TCODE for the transaction.