PFCGMASSDELETE: mass deletion of roles

To get the function for mass role deletion, you first need to apply OSS note 3360981 – PFCGMASSDELETE: Mass deletion of roles.

Mass deletion of roles

After the note is applied transaction code PFCGMASSDELETE can be started:

The I information button provides the description of the functions of the program:

The SCC4 functions are described in OSS note 1723881 – Application of client-specific customizing settings to role maintenance.

New way of activating super user SAP*

In SAP note 3303172 – Activating a Super-User SAP* SAP is describing a new alternative to activate user SAP*.

The SAP* activation is required in some cases. Systems that are protected well have the parameter login/no_automatic_user_sapstar set to 1 which will forbid the logon with SAP* (see also blog on SAP standard users). To use SAP* this parameter has to be set to 0, followed by system restart to activate it (the parameter is not dynamic). Often after using SAP* it is forgotten to undo the SAP* activation or to set the parameter login/no_automatic_user_sapstar to the secure 1 status again.

The new way described is available as of kernel release 790 and a separate tool with a short lived password only.

SAP Focused Run security notes validation

In the blog on security and configuration validation overview, we have explained to run a validation of ABAP security notes against your systems using Focused Run configuration and security validation.

Questions that will be answered in this blog are:

  • How can I quickly run an entire year of security OSS notes versus my systems?

SAP github with security policy source files

SAP publishes files for the ABAP security notes each month on the SAP Focused Run Best Practices GitHub:

Here the policy files for the ABAP security notes are stored per year and per month.

Not all security notes for ABAP stack are in these files: only the ABAP notes which can be applied via SNOTE. Security notes for ABAP stacks which require parameter changes or patches are not part of this check!

For convenience I have collected the files per year.

These files are for convenience only. It can be I made a mistake in assembling them.

Uploading the files

Goto the Configuration validation policy maintenance Fiori tile:

Create new policy and copy paste the text from the file:

Do this by choosing Edit and copy and paste the text in the editing section:

Now Save the policy. Check the XML. Generate the policy and check it by pressing Test Policy. Note that these are large files with many checks, so the testing can take some time. Run can be done via the Validate button or by following the instructions below.

Running the Security notes checks against the connected systems

To run the checks, goto the Configuration and Security Analytics Fiori tile:

Select the policy file to run:

Now be patient until the results are ready.

Make sure you expand the amount of columns.

If an ABAP notes is not applied it does not mean your system is not safe. You have define for which CVSS score and which systems you want to apply the security OSS notes, within which timeframe.

More on CVSS score see OSS note 2463332 – Security Note CVSS vector computation – SAP Solution Manager 7.1 and 7.2 and this SAP blog explaining the CVSS scoring in general.

<< This blog was originally posted on SAP Focused Run Guru by Frank Umans. Repost done with permission. >>

SAP password hash hacking Part VI: extended wordlists

As explained in the previous blogs many people use a word followed by a rule like add special and digit. Or use a word and replace character with digit or special character.

In the first blog the 10.000 word list was used.

This blog will make you aware of the existence of far more word lists and how to counter these.

Wordlists

Wordlists available:

  • Dictionaries for each language, like Webster for English. Each language has their own preferred dictionary
  • Keyboard walk list: contains fragments like QWER, UIOP, ASDF etc. These fragments are used in so-called combination attacks by using multiple fragments like: Qwer1234!@#$ (which is 3 keyboard walks)
  • Wikipedia list; this list is huge and simply contains a list of ALL words ever used on Wikipedia
  • Public site or intranet site keywords; comparable to Wikipedia, but targeted towards a single organization. Many people use the company name, department name, project name or another internal name as part of their password
  • All placenames (cities, provinces, states, countries, rivers, etc) in the world
  • All movies, actors, actrices, characters
  • Sport names and sports players
  • Lists from previous password hacks: like the LinkedIn list, RockYou list, etc.

The creator of John The Ripper offers them for money on their site (for cracking, still use hascat…).

Counter measures for attacks done by word lists

Counter measures:

  • User education to use not a single word, but two or more words in the password
  • Use single sign on in stead of passwords
  • Use generated passwords in secure storage

Call transaction security

An ABAP developer can call a different transaction from a custom build program or transaction. This can be very helpful for certain user requirements and can save an end user time when the system is helping him with jumping from one transaction to the next logical transaction.

Example

For authorization this can be a bit messy.
What for example will happen with this coding:

CALL TRANSACTION 'SU01'.

Will the SU01 transaction now be called successfully or not?

SE97 TCDCOUPLES

Suppose the user does not have rights to call SU01. The coding is still trying to go to this transaction.

Depending on the value of system parameter auth/check/calltransaction a couple of things can happen:

  • No check
  • Always check
  • Lookup if check is needed in table TCDCOUPLES

Table TCDCOUPLES links the calling transaction to the jumped to transaction and determines if the transaction authorization for the new transaction is required or not.

But what in case there is no entry or the entry in TCDCOUPLES is vague? Then it again determines on the value of parameter auth/check/calltransaction to be strict or not strict.

Entries in table TCDCOUPLES are maintained via transaction SE97:

Standard SAP example output:

Formal OSS note of SE97: 358122 – Description of functions of transaction SE97.

Updating TCDCOUPLES is a lot of work and no longer SAP best practice. See this SAP blog.

Correct way of coding

The correct way of coding is more simple: always indicate that the authority check is mandatory:

CALL TRANSACTION 'SU01' WITH AUTHORITY-CHECK.

In this way the coding forces the check independent of the system parameter and entries in TCDCOUPLES.

Finding incorrectly coded CALL TRANSACTIONS

The fastest way of finding incorrectly coded call transactions is by running the SAP CVA (code vulnerability analysis) tool. This tool scans for CALL TRANSACTIONS with missing authority checks. It also scans for other variations like dynamic use of CALL TRANSCATION.

Alternatively you can use CODE_SCANNER (see blog on usage) with this special input:

Basically you tell the program to look for any program with CALL TRANSACTION and not having WITH AUTHORITY-CHECK in it. Do realize it can potentially miss programs in case there are 2 calls (1 correct and 1 incorrect). The CVA tool will not miss this case.

LEAVE TO TRANSACTION

You might wonder: what is the situation for the LEAVE TO TRANSACTION statement? That is more simple. LEAVE TO TRANSACTION will always check the user rights for object S_TCODE for the transaction.

SE16N_BATCH program

SE16N_BATCH is a very powerful and dangerous program. You can use it to run SE16 queries for large datasets in batch mode and later pick up the results from the spool.

But it can also be misused to fetch data that you are not authorized to see, but a batch user can see.

Good use

For example you need a lot of records from BSEG:

This might fail online. If you run it in batch mode, you can simply pick up the spool later with the needed data:

Misuse

The program can be used for hacking purposes as well. Suppose you want to get all user password hashes. SE16N for USR02 is blocked. Now run the program in batch (not with your own user, but with a batch job user with rights to read USR02 data). Now all data is available in the spool for the hacker….

OSS notes

3443282 – “submit se16n_batch exporting list to memory” doesn’t work in background run

Information disclosure

Information disclosure is a potential security risk. Most IT software has a way to show the exact software version. This detailed information can be useful for an end user submitting an incident. Or for an administrator to know if certain patching is needed for an IT system.

But the detailed version information can also be used by a hacker to know if the system is vulnerable for some known attacks (and the system is not yet patches with the fix).

Hence for IT systems one should be careful and conscious about showing detailed version information: this is called information disclosure.

Known information disclosure items

ABAP System / Status

In ABAP stack, you can reduce the information in System/Status via authorizations. See OSS note 2658772 – System -> Status: Restriction of the available information.

Web administration interface

The web administration interface is a very known one. How to solve, read this blog.

Information disclosure security notes

Every month SAP release security notes (see blog). For the SAP systems that are internet facing (like portals, Netweaver Gateways, PI systems), check and apply the information disclosure notes as soon as possible. For the other systems, apply them at your normal security cycle speed.

List all user documenation

On the SU01 user maintenance screen there is a nice tab to capture documentation for that user. But how to list all documentation for all users?

List of all user documentation

To get the user documentation listing program, apply OSS note 3113345 – SUIM | Reporting for User Documentation. This will deliver program SUIM_SHOW_USDOCU:

Run the program for your selection to get the result list:

Click on a documentation line to see all the history.

CVA: Code vulnerability analysis

CVA is a licensed SAP tool to scan custom code for potential security issues.

CVA is built in code inspector and analysis is run via the ATC tool.

Questions that will be answered in this blog are:

  • What checks does CVA perform?
  • How to activate CVA?
  • Is CVA licensed?
  • Where to find more information on CVA?

Activating CVA

SAP CVA Code Vulnerability Analysis is a licensed tool. You need to activate it before you can use it. To activate run program RSLIN_SEC_LICENSE_SETUP:

The activation refers to OSS note 1855773 – Security checks for customer-specific ABAP programs which explains the license, restrictions, etc.

Call to SAP: if you really think security is important for your customers and their custom programs, don't ask money for CVA tool, but allow free usage!

Check the bug fix OSS notes below. Apply them before your first run.

Checks in detail

The SAP CVA checks can be seen in SCI variant SLIN_SEC:

And then open the variant and click the information button for details:

A full list of checks can also be found on this SAP blog.

And per netweaver version the checks are listed in OSS note 1921820 – SAP Code Vulnerability Analyzer – support package planning.

Setting up ATC variant and run

Start transaction ATC and press Schedule Run:

First create a new variant and refer to SCI variant SLIN_SEC:

Now schedule the run for your Z code:

The run can take a few hours.

More on ATC set up and running can be found in this blog.

Run results

Start transaction ATC and go to the results part:

Select your run:

The ATC result screen will show, but list can be very long:

Both Z programs and user exits will be shown (starting with S or X).

Press the Statistics View button top right to get a better overview:

The result list is now sorted per security item:

Don't let yourself be impressed by high numbers of the first run. Most issues are in old code: consider clean up. Focus on the priority 1 and priority 2 first. Finetune result set for priority 3 to lower the numbers.

Now you can zoom in to the issue per item by clicking on the line:

The details show the issue: hard coded user name. Clicking on the underlined code name in column Object Name will zoom into the code point to fix:

In this case hard coded break for a user. Fix is easy: delete the line of code.

Remote analysis

It is possible to use ATC remote analysis (see blog) for CVA. The full setup is explained in this SAP online help link. See also OSS note 2232083 – ATC/CI: SAP NetWeaver Application Server add-on for code vulnerability analysis – remote check runs – installation.

Checking license usage

Run program RSLIN_SEC_LICENSE_SETUP to check license usage:

Or run this from transaction SLIN_ADMIN.

SAP reference material

Generic presentation on SAP CVA can be found on this link.

CVA FAQ: follow this link.

CVA full list of checks: follow this link.

CVA as part of CI/CD development pipeline: follow this link.

ABAP code security issues explained: follow this link.

Bug fix and improvement notes

Bug fix and improvement OSS notes:

SQL commands via ST04

Via ST04 SQL commands, an administrator, or hacker can fire any SQL statement provided he has the authorizations.

Once the authorizations on S_DBCON are there, any SQL can be used to read and update any table.

Firing SQL command via ST04

Start transaction ST04 and open the SQL editor in the Diagnostics section:

Now enter your SQL statement and press execute.

Result is shown:

How to avoid this?

If you don’t want people to use this function, withdraw the rights to do so. Authorization object S_DBCON is used to protect this.

Note that the SQL is fired using the SAP user of the system, not the ABAP user logged on.